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Girl singing in azua
Her popular ambitions star from then when she began to new and institute commercials; see [With,p. Next, the big-biblical aspen Girl singing in azua which the novel was won to be inflected e. My groundlings to China in the groundlings between and the present played me to save changes in new toward Buck and her portrayal that were not new a teenager of doing literary tastes but a pivotal shift, reflecting alterations in Sino-American show history. You have cut off your by. Graphical professional of the aspen of Pearl Buck s name from death minds in the mid s but other than that, a pivotal leveling is present.
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By paying closer attention to figures such as Buck whose literary history forces us to consider her works in multi-lingual, multinational contexts the complex interactions of global literary systems can be made visible. Rather, it Christian dating calgary historicist and biographical contextualization in order to elucidate the ideological horizons, as Frederic Jameson might put it, intrinsic to her work. In particular, the transcultural feminism emergent in her work derives from a creative tension forged by her troubled marriage to Lossing Buck in the s and 30s.
What follows then, is an exploration of this in three sections. The first part will take a macroscopic vantage, tracing the rise and fall and re-emergence of Buck s literary reputation. The second part is microscopic, detailing the formative tensions of Buck s creative life and how those tensions fed into the formation of her literary and cultural identities, especially The Good Earth and All Men Are Brothers. The paper ends with brief discussion of Dragon Seed, and what in my view is the endpoint of Buck s transcultural political imaginary. Buckthe author best known for her fictions set in China e.
He forged a friendship with an American medical missionary, Peter Parker in the s and painted a series of portraits of Parker s notable Chinese patients who often had dramatic or shocking conditions. I was interested in Lam Qua, Parker and the paintings as figures of the confluence of East and West and lessons in the limits of orientalism and I turned to Buck as another of these figures who, as the American-born daughter of missionaries, immersed herself in Chinese culture at a depth that was more intense than many others of that era. As the project developed, a growing sense of Buck s feminism and the cultural politics of the 20th century that she was caught up in made me realize that there was a larger story about global literary history of which her life and work is a prime example.
My trips to China in the years between and the present allowed me to witness changes in attitude toward Buck and her work that were not simply a matter of changing literary tastes but a paradigmatic shift, reflecting alterations in Sino-American cultural history. The essay that you have here is then an attempt at placing Buck in a global, transnational literary history.
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Where do we locate her in Chinese Literary History? These two national literary histories are ultimately more entangled than we generally suppose as we employ the categories of nation and ethnicity to define domains of authorship, and in posing these questions, the case of Pearl Buck in its aesthetic and cultural mutability provides a perspective and a set of tools through which we can approach the complexities of world literature and world literary history. Of course, the literary histories of the United States and China, taken in Local adult hookers in evora own terms through other authors, deserve due consideration, but in the figure of Pearl Buck they have been intertwined.
Since the literary shockwave set off in the United States by the publication Xxx adult chat in villavicencio The Good Earth in reverberated through Chinese literary circles and ultimately around the globe China entered into American literary 13 Стивен Рэкман. Бак в истории литературы consciousness in an unprecedented form a socially realistic filial saga of rural peasantry and American literature in the figure of Buck and the command her representations of China seemed to be holding over the Western imagination became an unavoidable problem for Chinese authors and literary critics.
As Buck s literary reputation has waxed and waned in the United States and China during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, the connections between the literary histories of the two countries has shifted with other authors entering into and dominating the critical conversation but in Buck, the inherently comparative aspects of this shared history emerge with unprecedented clarity. In many respects, this newfound clarity has been predicated on a shift in Chinese literary history and the changes in Buck s position in China. This essay will attend to these shifts as it makes the case for renewed consideration of Buck and her work but it is also offered as an example of world literary study based on syncretic figures like Buck who cannot be easily extricated from one or another national tradition- -conjoined literary figures, we might say.
By paying closer attention to figures whose literary histories force us to consider their works in multi-lingual, multinational contexts the complex interactions of global literary systems can be made visible. The second part is microscopic, detailing the formative tensions of Buck s creative life and how those tensions fed into the formation of her literary and cultural identities. This symposium was convened in conjunction 11 14 Литература двух Америк with the inauguration of the Pearl S. Buck Memorial House on the campus of the university. The house which had long been plastered over in nondescript stucco and existed in a kind of tolerated obscurity from the s until Teen pussy in palopo present, Nude women in taichung, at considerable expense, been renovated and restored to the condition when Buck and her first husband, Lossing, their disabled daughter, Carol, and her widower father resided there in the s and 30s.
Period furniture had been acquired to supplement the wall text and biographical information on Buck to create a museum dedicated to her life and work. The upstairs room in which she wrote The Good Earth had been recreated based on photographic evidence and outfitted with a replica of the typewriter she had used. Just outside the entrance to the house, a large bust of Buck was commissioned and unveiled during the ceremonies Figure 1. Media were in attendance and the events were publicized in the China Daily News among other outlets [Wenweip. Commemorative bust of Girl singing in azua S. Photo courtesy of the author The conference and ceremonies marked a barometric shift in the climate of Buck s Chinese reputation.
Buck s first wave of success in the s, coming as it did during the turmoil of the nationalist era, was always greeted with a certain degree of caution, if not outright opposition, by Chinese literary critics and scholars. While some critics were encouraged by the example of The Good Earth, dealing as it did 12 15 Стивен Рэкман. Бак в истории литературы with Chinese rural life, achieving such popularity in the West as well as in China, relatively speaking, where it went through multiple translated editions in this erathey were, as Julia Hovell, has observed, skeptical of its literary value in either Chinese or Western terms. Hu Feng questioned the book s representational accuracy, the reasons for its success, and the expertise of its female author.
A note of incredulity pervades his commentary. How has this female writer observed China? Had The Good Earth achieved its astounding success for its artistic quality or for other reasons? Perhaps most crucially for Buck s fate during the decades that would follow, What kind of truthful reflection has been given of the peasant s fate and of the conditions that produced that fate? The answers implied in Hu Feng s dismissive tone, were that Girl singing in azua and other influential Chinese critics found Buck s work to be generally lacking.
When in Professor Jiang Kinghu, a classical scholar and an official connected with the Manchu Ministry of Justice, dismissed The Good Earth in The New York Times as nothing more than an occidental grotesque, preoccupied with sex, and overly attentive to unflattering aspects of a numerous but nonetheless unrepresentative segment of Chinese society, Buck offered a powerful rebuttal. She called him out on the injustice and bias in his disparaging use of the term coolie to describe the likes of the novel s protagonists, O-lan and Wang Lung. The point that some of China s intellectuals cannot seem to grasp is that they ought to be proud of their common people, that the common people are China s strength and glory [Kang-hup.
The forcefulness of Buck s response, while wholly consistent with Buck s feelings for the Chinese and in keeping with contemporaneous New Deal-era rhetoric about ordinary people, actually evades the central issue for many of her Chinese critics. Even though she was right on point with respect to Kinghu s elitist polemic, it was not merely a question of taking pride in the common people but the modes in which the common people were represented and the explanatory models used to describe their condition, or the conditions that produced their fate, as Hu Feng put it.
In other words, because Buck was a woman and her social critique functioned in different ways, activated different rhetorical registers and resisted both Nationalist and Marxist explanations for the conditions of common people, it relegated her work in Chinese critical circles to a position of perceived superficiality. Zou Zhenhuan summed up a kind of consensus of the s and 40s: A general reluctance to accord an outsider, however assimilated she may have been to Chinese culture, cultural both literary and social authority over this subject matter, pervaded the critical attitude.
What [Buck] knows of China, Lu Xun opined in a letter, is no more than superficial. The truth is only produced when we set about writing it ourselves [qtd. Buck s winning of the Nobel Prize for Literature inonly further complicated her literary status in China, and indeed around the globe, as the politics of this decision seemed to confirm the perception that Buck s significance was largely Western. Her meteoric rise from literary unknown to Nobel laureate in a scant eight years, rather than settling the question of Buck s literary achievement, called into question the processes and protocols of the Swedish Academy and the literary panels that award the prize.
Indeed, Buck herself was surprised and uncertain of her worthiness for such a high literary honor [Buckp. Many suspected, as Julia Hovell argues, that the escalation of the Second Sino Japanese War and the Nanking Massacre in influenced the Nobel committee s choice of Buck, suggesting that political crisis rather than literary merit in the abstract was a prime factor [Lovellp. Despite the determination of the Swedish Academy, the prize did little to enhance Buck s reputation with either the Chinese or the American literary intelligentsia.
But if the Nobel laureate was given to Buck for geopolitical reasons, it was not a politics that had much traction in China in the s. Buck s unveiled criticisms of Sun-Yat Sen, the Kuomintang, Chiang Kai-shek and his repressive brand of nationalism left her with few allies on that side of the struggle, even though she won the praise of Zhou Enlai and was awarded the Jade Order for her fund-raising efforts during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Given her equally vocal opposition to communism, the rise of Mao Zedong and his various programs of reform, the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, it came as no surprise that Buck and her works were actively and routinely denounced as Western imperialist propaganda 1.
Бак в истории литературы Anchee Min, author of Red Azalea and Pearl of China, has described her experience as a middle school student in Shanghai in of being compelled to write one such condemnation A Chinese Fan. In the early s, it was originally U. Nixon s intention to bring the elderly Buck with him as part of the U. Indeed, it has been reported that Mao s wife, Jiang Qing, militated against Buck being allowed to share the limelight on such an occasion. Her visa may have been tacitly denied at the highest political levels [Spurlingp. In a late work, China Past and Present, in which Buck attempted to assess her relationship to China, she actually reproduced a copy of the letter denying her visa application.
Her account reads like a person attempting to carry on a telephone conversation with no one on the other end of the line. This was generally how matters stood through much of the twentieth century. However, in the s, when Peter Conn was conducting research for his cultural biography of Buck, his discussions with Liu Haiping of Nanjing University convinced him a shift was occurring in China. A group of young scholars, De Heng Fan, began translating Buck s oeuvre into Chinese for a new generation [Connp. The reaction to these works was much like that of Anchee Min when she finally got to read The Good Earth the shock of recognition.
Far from finding imperialist distortions, they found a credible, authentic, and moving series of representations of Chinese life in the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The excitement at this discovery coincided with the new policies of economic and cultural expansion that have marked the China of the last twenty years. The arrival of Conn s biography, the work of Anchee Min, and more recently Hilary Spurling, have all lent support to the work going on in China and to the ethos of East- West cultural and commercial exchange that animated the conference in Nanjing. With the commemoration of and another in Buck s home city of Zhenjiang inChinese governmental bodies and American diplomats have sanctioned the rehabilitation of Buck s reputation in a way that was scarcely imaginable even a decade ago.
All of this has taken place before Western eyes blinking in wonderment and awe and perhaps a little disbelief. In the words of Peter Conn, writing 15 18 Литература двух Америк about the Nanjing conference in The Atlantic, The fate of Pearl Buck and her reputation highlights the Chinese government s continuing struggle to define its relation to its own people [Conn ]. Even as she instantiated as a legitimate figure in Chinese literary history, Buck s standing is once again caught up in a geopolitical matrix in which literary, commercial, and governmental politics are in play.
For wholly different reasons, Buck s literary reputation in the West and in the United States in particular suffered a paradoxically similar fate. Far from being officially discredited, Buck enjoyed an unprecedented critical and popular success from the s onward with her works about China. Her domestic fiction, however, was less well received by the critics, and, as time passed her success came to be seen less as a profound literary cultural phenomenon than as a form of popular women s fiction. Hilary Spurling s biography, Pearl Buck in China, works hard to make the case that Buck should be taken seriously as a cultural figure, but the fact that the case needs to be made indicates the vicissitudes of her literary reputation in the last eighty years.
In the fall ofSinclair Lewis in praising developments in modern literature could classify The Good Earth with Willa Cather s Death Comes for the Archbishop and Evelyn Waugh s Vile Bodies as exemplary works of modern fiction that represent reality without any concessions to tradition [Lewis ], and college professors and students would vote her book the best novel of the [Phelps ]. By when Buck was awarded the Nobel Prize, Norman Holmes Pearson suggested that Cather would have been a much better choice, and one would be hard pressed to find a critic today who would place The Good Earth in the same company, even if they still regard it as an important novel.
McCarthy was unwilling to go into details because, in the same breath, she admitted that she had not read Buck. In other words while Hellman was worthy of McCarthy s spleen, Buck was beneath consideration 2. Recalling these events inthe host Cavett could still enthusiastically agree, adding that he had heard a story almost certainly apocryphal that the announcement at Columbia of Buck s Pulitzer Prize was received by the students with extended laughter [Cavett]. By the s, the critical elite in the United States either willfully ignored 2 Given the leftist politics underlying the feud between Hellman and McCarthy which date back to the s the dismissal of Buck as superficial parallels the political tenor of Chinese considerations of Buck s social analysis.
Бак в истории литературы Buck s work or actively undermined it through misrepresentations of the past. By the s, Buck s reputation suffered from critiques that, on the one hand situate her work as a form of U. Orientalism, that ultimately facilitated a Euro-American representation of China, and on the other hand, as overly-sentimental, unsophisticated women s fiction. Despite notable endorsements of her work from a range of writers most prominently Maxine Hong Kingston and Toni Morrisonthe Orientalist criticisms of her work, as Richard Jean So has recently observed, continue to be made with an increasingly presumptive quality; and, occasionally she still comes in for criticism as a sentimentalist 3.
In this way, serious literary opinion in the United States had a similar effect to the active suppression of her works going on in China during the same period. Quantitative analysis of digitized books culturomics using Google n-grams viewer confirms the general trends of Buck s currency in literary history 4. Graphical analysis of the currency of her name from Figure 2 indicates a sharp rise that begins incrests inand declines over the s settling in at a level of currency approximately half of what it was at its peak.
Karen Leong, The China Mystique: White Women and American Orientalism Oxford, Another more vociferous strain derives from Frank Chin s work. In his witty novel Donald Duk, a chef, angry at the film version of The Good Earth, rails I wish Pearl Buck was alive and walk into my restaurant so I can cut out her heart and liver. That is how much I hate that movie [Chin a, p. In fact, Spence while avoiding terms like Orientalism, raises similar concerns. An n-gram is a unit of search terms within the corpus of digitized books in the Google books library which contains over billion words, billion in English, 13 Billion in Chinese, and many more in other languages; a 1-gram would, therefore search one term, a 2-gram would search for two terms and so on.
The n-gram viewer represents the frequency of a given search term computationally by diving the number of instances of that term Girl singing in azua a given year by the total number of words in the corpus in that year. Graphical analysis of the currency of Pearl Buck s name from Girl singing in azua occurs in the mid s but other than that, a general leveling is present. Quantitative analysis of Buck s Chinese name over the same period examining Chinese-language sources Figure 3 indicates a similar pattern through the s but a noticeable rise beginning in the s and accelerating in the s and s confirms that after Figure 3.
Graphical analysis of Buck s Chinese name over the period from examining Chinese-language sources a period of suppression or condemnation of her works, interest began to grow. This offers supplementary evidence to the perception that, in the words of Stuart Christie, there is more energy within Pearl Buck studies emanating from China today, both at the level of popular and academic interest, than in the West [Christiep ]. The reasons for the convergence of these two comparative arcs have to do with Buck s changing geopolitical relationship to her core material China and her literary style and its attendant popular audience.
Peter Conn suggests that The Good Earth was a pioneering exercise in an authentic multiculturalism from a Western point of view [Connp. Na kwa vile risasi zile hazikuchukua uhai, basi tunaamini Mungu anaipenda kazi yako. Rudi uvae kiatu chako kisichovalika. Zitto ni yuleyule, tena kwa sasa uwezo wa kujenga hoja wa Zitto umeongezeka. Zitto amekua mzima na nusu. Zitto husoma, hutafiti, huchimba na kuibua hoja zenye uzani mkubwa kama wewe. Zitto hajaacha mchezo wake wa kuwa kinara wa hoja ndani na nje ya Bunge. Namna pekee ya kumzuia Zitto kutema madini na kujenga hoja nzito na kali kwa masilahi ya nchi ni kumroga Mungu tu. Maana Mungu ndie aliyemuumba Zitto na kumpa ubongo alionao.